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鄺李道: 華人和中華文化在澳大利亞 —從早期旅居者到當代

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Kwong Lee DowKwong was born and educated in Melboume. His grandparents came from SzeYap, Canton settling in Austr...

Kwong Lee Dow

Kwong was born and educated in Melboume. His grandparents came from SzeYap, Canton settling in Australia from the 1890s. One grandfather practiced traditional Chinese herbal medicine in country Victoria, the other was a market gardener in Launceston, Tasmania.

Much of his working life has been in the University of Melboume, as Professor of Education since 1973, as Dean of Education for twenty years, then as Deputy Vice-Chancellor for six years, and Vice-Chancellor in 2004. Since formal retirement he was briefly Vice-Chancellor of the University of Ballarat.

Kwong has held various Australian government and Victorian government appointments, leading and participating in reviews of university education, school and teacher education. He has held professional and govemment appointments in Hong Kong, New Zealand, Singapore and Saudi Arabia.

He has been recognized by professional bodies in the field of Education, and is a Member and an Officer in the Order ofAustralia.

He is married, with two adult daughters and two grandsons.

Chinese people and Chinese culture in Australia-from earlier sojourners through to today This talk is intended to set the scene for some of the topics for the Forum. It briefiy characterizes that part of the Chinese diaspora that came to Australia from the mid nineteenth century onwards, with a principal focus on recent times.

Early mass emigration from China arose from the combination of bad times at home and good times abroad. When the Cantonese called San Francisco Gum San (Gold Hills) and Australia Sum Gum San (New Gold Hills), they sailed from the Four Districts of the Pearl River delta to take steamships from Canton or Hong Kong to the goldfields of California, New South Wales and Victoria.

But in the rich multicultural communities that make up contemporary Australia, Chinese culture derives from recent emigrants from the People's Republic of China, from south-east Asian Chinese who came to Australia from the 1960s, as well as from the Australian bom descendants of nineteenth century pioneers. Within the stories of these people, we leam of two sets of social, cultural and political revolutions- those which have taken place in Australia, and those which have taken place in China- over this period of around 160 years.

Wang Gungwu stresses the speed at which the cultural landscape has changed since the late 1960s: 'Partly because of the new political realities in the region following the end of World War 2, and partly because of the guilty reaction against past inhumane policies, there was a readiness to welcome Asians into Australia which was unprecedented.

This was an extraordinary social and cultural revolution for Australia, something many settled white Australians have welcomed, but others have found hard to digest.'
Reviewing census data released this year, one commentator warned-don't aim your business at white Australia, because Australia hasn't looked that way for quite a while. The highest ever single annual increase in Australia'spopulation occurred in 2009, with an annual growth rate of l.8 percent, unmatched since 1972. This population increase owes more to migration than to natural increase, and migration includes long-term temporary migrants with student, holiday and business visas. The effect is strongest in the 25-29 year age group.

Lots of Australians speak languages other than English. Almost half of longer standing migrants and two-thirds of recent arrivals speak Languages other than English at home. The most frequent languages spoken at home are, in order- Mandarin, Italian, Arabic, Cantonese and Greek.

As the paper looks briefly at the cultural contributions of Chinese immigrants across many diverse fields- traditionalChinese medicine and health more broadly, education, business, technologies, philosophies and the visual andperforming arts, we can speculate whether today's Chinese migrants, better educated and less bound by traditional Chinese values, will repeat the migrant behaviours of their predecessors, or whether a totally new kind of Chinese Australian is evolving.

 

鄺李道

鄺教授在墨爾本出生,并在墨爾本接受教育。他的祖父母于十九實世紀九十年代從廣東的四邑地區移民到澳大利亞。一位祖父在維多利亞州從事中草藥行業,另一位在塔斯馬尼亞的Launceston當市場花園的園丁。

他的職業生涯主要是在墨爾本大學度過的,自從1973年以來,他擔任該大學的教育學教授,并擔任了20年的教育學系主任,然后擔任了6年的首席副校長,從2004年起擔任實際主持學校日常工作的副校長。正式退休后,他短暫擔任過巴拉瑞特大學的副校長。

鄺教授擔任過澳大利亞改府和維多利亞州政府的多種職位,領導和參與了大學教育、中小學和師范教育的評審。他還在香港、新西蘭、新加坡和沙特阿拉伯擔任過專業性職位和政府職位。

他的成就得到教育界專業機構的公認,他也是澳洲功勛工作人員獎和澳洲勛章三等勛銜的獲得者。

他已婚,有兩個成年女兒和兩個外孫。

華人和中華文化在澳大利亞——從早期旅居者到現在

這一講話旨在為這次論壇的一些話題設置背景。它簡單扼要地描述了十九世紀中葉以來移民到澳大利亞的華人社群的特點,重點是最近年代。

中國早期的大規模移民是由于國內的衰落和國外的興旺這兩種因素的結合造成的。當廣東人把圣弗朗西斯科稱為“金山”并把澳大利亞稱為“新金山”時,他們在珠江三角洲的四個區乘坐輪船,從廣州或香港到加利福尼亞、新南威爾士和維多利亞的金礦。

然而,當今澳大利亞由富裕的多文化社區組成,在這些社區中,中華文化的來源如下:新近從中國大陸來的移民、在二十世紀六十年代移民來澳大利亞的東南亞華人、以及在澳大利亞出生的華人后代(他們的先輩是十九世紀的移民)。從這些人的故事中,我們了解到近160年來發生的兩種社會、文化和政治革命:一種是在澳大利亞發生的,另一種是在中國發生的。

王賡武強調二十世紀六十年代末以來文化景觀改變的速度:“部分是由于第二次世界大戰結束后這一地區的新政治現實,部分是由于對過去不人道政策的一種內疚反應,因此澳大利亞前所未有地愿意接收亞洲移民。對于澳大利亞來說,這是不同尋常的社會和文化變革,對于早已定居在澳大利亞的白人來說,其中一些變革是值得歡迎的,但對另外一些變革感到很難消化。”

一位評論家分析了今年發布的人口普查數據之后,警告說:不要把你的業務針對澳大利亞白人,因為澳大利亞已有相當長時間不是原來的樣子了。澳大利亞有史以來人口增長最多的一年是在2009年,年增長率達到1.8%,這是1972年以來最高的。這種人口增長更多是由于移民因素,而不是由于自然增長,移民包括有學生簽證、度假簽證和商務簽證的長期臨時移民。這種效應在25-29歲這種年齡段最強。

除了英語之外,很多澳大利亞人還講其它語言。幾乎一半的長期移民和三分之二的新移民在家里講英語以外的語言。在家里講的語言中最普遍的依次如下:普通話、意大利語、阿拉伯語、粵語和希臘語。

本文簡要討論了中國移民在多種領域的文化方面的貢獻,包括中醫和保健,更廣泛的是教育、商業、技術、哲學、視覺和表演藝術,我們可以推測:今天的中國移民受到更好的教育和較少受到傳統中國價值觀的約束,他們是會重復先輩移民的行為,還是會演化出一種全新的華裔澳大利亞人?


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